Metadata

Name Illicit opioid use
Type Lifestyle Risk Factor
Group Lifestyle Risk Factor
Data Sources

Clinical Terminologies SNOMED-CT
Read Version 2
CPRD product code
Codelists
Valid Event Data Range 01/03/2020-05/04/2020
Sex Female
Male
Authors Lewer D, Padmanathan P, Arfeen A, Denaxas S, Forbes H, Gonzalez-Izquierdo A, Hickman M
Agreement Date 8 Dec 2020
Version (UUID) 1 (mZXE2uZxDzVYBsAbTjbhrK)

Primary care

Data-base Type code Read or SNOMED term Name Meth/ bupe Status
AURUM Prodcode x2052541000033112 - Methadone Hydrochloride Diluent Oral Solution Sugar Free M Definite
AURUM Prodcode x2267741000033115 - Methadone Hydrochloride Oral Solution, Sugar Free, Tartrazine Free 1 mg/1 ml M Definite
AURUM Prodcode x174241000033111 - Buprenorphine 400microgram sublingual tablets sugar free B Definite
AURUM Prodcode x1835541000033116 - Subutex 0.4mg sublingual tablets (Indivior UK Ltd) B Definite
AURUM Prodcode x1835641000033115 - Subutex 2mg sublingual tablets (Indivior UK Ltd) B Definite
AURUM Prodcode x1835341000033111 - Buprenorphine 2mg sublingual tablets sugar free B Definite
AURUM Prodcode x1835441000033117 - Buprenorphine 8mg sublingual tablets sugar free B Definite
AURUM Prodcode x1835741000033112 - Subutex 8mg sublingual tablets (Indivior UK Ltd) B Definite
AURUM Prodcode x4010841000033112 - Suboxone 2mg/500microgram sublingual tablets (Indivior UK Ltd) B Definite
AURUM Prodcode x4010641000033111 - Buprenorphine 2mg / Naloxone 500microgram sublingual tablets sugar free B Definite
AURUM Prodcode x4010741000033119 - Buprenorphine 8mg / Naloxone 2mg sublingual tablets sugar free B Definite
AURUM Prodcode x4010941000033116 - Suboxone 8mg/2mg sublingual tablets (Indivior UK Ltd) B Definite
AURUM Prodcode x4815541000033118 - Methadone 5mg capsules M Definite
AURUM Prodcode x10045241000033110 - Buprenorphine 1mg sublingual tablets sugar free B Definite
AURUM Prodcode x10045641000033113 - Buprenorphine 4mg sublingual tablets sugar free B Definite
AURUM Prodcode x10045441000033111 - Buprenorphine 6mg sublingual tablets sugar free B Definite
AURUM Prodcode x11789141000033119 - Buprenorphine 2mg oral lyophilisates sugar free B Definite
AURUM Prodcode x11789341000033116 - Espranor 2mg oral lyophilisates (Martindale Pharmaceuticals Ltd) B Definite
AURUM Prodcode x11789241000033114 - Buprenorphine 8mg oral lyophilisates sugar free B Definite
AURUM Prodcode x11789441000033110 - Espranor 8mg oral lyophilisates (Martindale Pharmaceuticals Ltd) B Definite
AURUM Prodcode x1655941000033119 - Methadone 10mg/ml oral solution sugar free M Definite
AURUM Prodcode x888541000033115 - Methadone 1mg/ml oral solution M Definite
AURUM Prodcode x2957241000033118 - Physeptone 1mg/ml mixture (Martindale Pharmaceuticals Ltd) M Definite
AURUM Prodcode x2003041000033115 - Methadone 1mg/ml oral solution sugar free M Definite
AURUM Prodcode x2957141000033113 - Physeptone 1mg/ml oral solution sugar free (Martindale Pharmaceuticals Ltd) M Definite
AURUM Prodcode x1656041000033112 - Methadone 20mg/ml oral solution sugar free M Definite
AURUM Medcode x342466013 x228389003 Groin injector - Probable
AURUM Medcode x342474014 x228396001 Does not share drug injection equipment - Probable
AURUM Medcode x407241000000119 x248601000000106 Neck injector - Probable
AURUM Medcode x342468014 x228391006 Drug injection behaviour - Probable
AURUM Medcode x2474734017 x371435006 [V]Personal history of drug abuse by injection - Probable
AURUM Medcode x417771000006112 x295174006 [X]Overdose - heroin - Probable
AURUM Medcode x2549886016 x712545004 Abstinent from drug misuse on maintenance replacement - Probable
AURUM Medcode x467941000006119 x292056009 Adverse reaction to heroin, diamorphine - Probable
AURUM Medcode x1772531000006119 x1772531000006103 Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Scale - Probable
AURUM Medcode x1774961000000119 x763699005 Clinical opiate withdrawal scale - Probable
AURUM Medcode x968671000006118 x968671000006102 Currently injecting drugs - Probable
AURUM Medcode x512101000000118 x277091000000105 H/O methadone misuse - Definite
AURUM Medcode x339576014 x226034001 Injecting drug user - Probable
AURUM Medcode x342465012 x228388006 Intravenous drug user - Probable
AURUM Medcode x1971531000006116 x1971531000006100 Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: psychotic disorder, predominantly polymorphic - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969121000006115 x969121000006104 Misuse of Anileridine - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969271000006114 x969271000006105 Misuse of Codeine linctus - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969231000006111 x969231000006107 Misuse of Codeine tablets - Probable
AURUM Medcode x969061000006110 x969061000006106 Misuse of Dextromoramide - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969251000006116 x969251000006100 Misuse of Dextropropoxyphene - Definite
AURUM Medcode x968811000006111 x968811000006107 Misuse of Diamorphine Hydrochl amps - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969151000006112 x969151000006108 Misuse of Ethoheptazine - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969301000006111 x969301000006107 Misuse of Gee's linctus - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969211000006117 x969211000006101 Misuse of Meptazinol - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969261000006119 x969261000006103 Misuse of Opiate containing mixture - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969281000006112 x969281000006108 Misuse of Pentazocine - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969191000006118 x969191000006102 Misuse of Phenazocine - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969181000006116 x969181000006100 Misuse of Phenoperidine - Definite
AURUM Medcode x882501000006119 x191816009 Morphine/cocaine dependence - Definite
AURUM Medcode x882501000006119 x191816009 Morphine/cocaine dependence - Definite
AURUM Medcode x988901000006116 x191816009 Morphine/cocaine dependence - Definite
AURUM Medcode x988901000006116 x191816009 Morphine/cocaine dependence - Definite
AURUM Medcode x882501000006119 x191816009 Morphine/cocaine dependence - Definite
AURUM Medcode x882501000006119 x191816009 Morphine/cocaine dependence - Definite
AURUM Medcode x988901000006116 x191816009 Morphine/cocaine dependence - Definite
AURUM Medcode x988901000006116 x191816009 Morphine/cocaine dependence - Definite
AURUM Medcode x2639961000000113 x1047881000000106 Opioid analgesic dependence - Probable
AURUM Medcode x2548992019 x416479009 Previously injecting drug user - Probable
AURUM Medcode x342473015 x228395002 Sharing of drug injecting equipment - Probable
AURUM Medcode x968661000006113 x968661000006109 Previously injected drugs - Probable
AURUM Medcode x295297018 x191914006 Nondependent opioid abuse in remission - Definite
AURUM Medcode x295232014 x191869005 Combined opioid with other drug dependence in remission - Definite
AURUM Medcode x295156018 x191821007 Opioid dependence in remission - Definite
AURUM Medcode x477031000000112 x278031000000108 Previous history of opiate misuse - Definite
AURUM Medcode x475831000000113 x277431000000104 Previous history of methadone misuse - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1976531000006113 x1976531000006109 Mental and behav dis due to use opioids: dependence syndr, currently abstinent, but in a protected environment - Definite
AURUM Medcode x475531000000111 x277281000000101 Previous history of heroin misuse - Definite
AURUM Medcode x328544015 x216463005 Accidental poisoning by heroin - Probable
AURUM Medcode x1220925010 x13187008 Heroin poisoning - Probable
AURUM Medcode x361941000006116 x216463005 [X]Accidental poisoning with heroin - Probable
AURUM Medcode x295296010 x191913000 Nondependent opioid abuse, episodic - Definite
AURUM Medcode x295228015 x191865004 Combined opioid with other drug dependence - Definite
AURUM Medcode x295295014 x191912005 Nondependent opioid abuse, continuous - Definite
AURUM Medcode x295154015 x191819002 Continuous opioid dependence - Definite
AURUM Medcode x295155019 x191820008 Episodic opioid dependence - Definite
AURUM Medcode x295231019 x191868002 Combined opioid with other drug dependence, episodic - Definite
AURUM Medcode x295230018 x191867007 Combined opioid with other drug dependence, continuous - Definite
AURUM Medcode x295290016 x191909007 Nondependent opioid abuse - Definite
AURUM Medcode x346951016 x231480002 Opium dependence - Definite
AURUM Medcode x346949015 x231478008 Methadone dependence - Definite
AURUM Medcode x346950015 x231479000 Morphine dependence - Definite
AURUM Medcode x346947018 x231477003 Heroin dependence - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1485129010 x391102000 Failed heroin detoxification - Definite
AURUM Medcode x303011000000111 x200031000000103 Drug addiction maintenance therapy - methadone - Definite
AURUM Medcode x314821000000113 x205231000000102 Opiate dependence detoxification - Definite
AURUM Medcode x309921000000119 x202991000000100 Heroin misuse - Definite
AURUM Medcode x316931000000112 x206131000000102 Drug addiction detoxification therapy - buprenorphine - Definite
AURUM Medcode x302981000000113 x200021000000100 Drug addiction detoxification therapy - methadone - Definite
AURUM Medcode x316901000000118 x206121000000104 Drug addiction maintenance therapy - buprenorphine - Definite
AURUM Medcode x512241000000113 x277221000000102 H/O daily heroin misuse - Definite
AURUM Medcode x512651000000113 x279461000000104 Uses heroin on top of substitution therapy - Definite
AURUM Medcode x495611000000112 x286841000000101 Reinduction to methadone maintenance therapy - Definite
AURUM Medcode x512201000000110 x276981000000107 H/O opiate misuse - Definite
AURUM Medcode x512281000000117 x277371000000108 H/O weekly methadone misuse - Definite
AURUM Medcode x512441000000112 x278001000000102 H/O infrequent opiate misuse - Definite
AURUM Medcode x512261000000114 x277311000000103 H/O infrequent heroin misuse - Definite
AURUM Medcode x512271000000119 x277341000000102 H/O daily methadone misuse - Definite
AURUM Medcode x512421000000117 x277941000000101 H/O daily opiate misuse - Definite
AURUM Medcode x541451000000111 x304681000000107 Opioid agonist substitution therapy - Definite
AURUM Medcode x475771000000117 x277401000000105 H/O infrequent methadone misuse - Definite
AURUM Medcode x512431000000115 x277971000000107 H/O weekly opiate misuse - Definite
AURUM Medcode x495671000000119 x286871000000107 Reinduction to buprenorphine maintenance therapy - Definite
AURUM Medcode x512631000000118 x279441000000100 H/O heroin misuse - Definite
AURUM Medcode x512251000000111 x277251000000107 H/O weekly heroin misuse - Definite
AURUM Medcode x512661000000111 x279491000000105 Does not use heroin on top of substitution therapy - Definite
AURUM Medcode x968901000006119 x968901000006103 Misuse of Methadone mixture - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969021000006116 x969021000006100 Misuse of Morphine Sulphate - Probable
AURUM Medcode x969161000006114 x969161000006105 Misuse of Fentanyl - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969381000006119 x969381000006103 Misuse of Kaolin and Morphine - Definite
AURUM Medcode x987521000006119 x987521000006103 Drugs used within the past month - Heroin - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969051000006113 x969051000006109 Misuse of Dihydrocodeine - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969101000006113 x969101000006109 Misuse of Hydromorphone - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969141000006110 x969141000006106 Misuse of Oxycodone - Definite
AURUM Medcode x987531000006116 x987531000006100 Drugs used within the past month - Methadone - Definite
AURUM Medcode x968841000006110 x968841000006106 Substance misuse of Methadone - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969041000006111 x969041000006107 Misuse of Opium - Definite
AURUM Medcode x968821000006115 x968821000006104 Misuse of Diamorphine Hydrochl reefers - Definite
AURUM Medcode x968981000006111 x968981000006107 Misuse of Methadone suppositories - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969081000006117 x969081000006101 Misuse of Pethidine - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969111000006111 x969111000006107 Misuse of Oxymorphone - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969241000006118 x969241000006102 Misuse of Tramadol Hydrochloride - Probable
AURUM Medcode x969291000006110 x969291000006106 Misuse of Buprenorphine - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969331000006115 x969331000006104 Misuse of Opiate compound analgesics - Definite
AURUM Medcode x968961000006118 x968961000006102 Misuse of Methadone amps - Definite
AURUM Medcode x968741000006115 x968741000006104 Substance misuse of Heroin - Definite
AURUM Medcode x968771000006111 x968771000006107 Misuse of Diamorphine - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969001000006114 x969001000006105 Substance misuse of other Opiates - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969091000006119 x969091000006103 Misuse of Morphine Sulphate amps - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969391000006116 x969391000006100 Misuse of other Opiates - Definite
AURUM Medcode x968761000006116 x968761000006100 Misuse of Heroin illicit - Definite
AURUM Medcode x968791000006112 x968791000006108 Misuse of Diamorphine Hydrochl elixir - Definite
AURUM Medcode x968871000006119 x968871000006103 Misuse of Methadone unspecified - Definite
AURUM Medcode x968951000006115 x968951000006104 Misuse of Methadone tablets - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969011000006112 x969011000006108 Misuse of Opiates unspecified - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969071000006115 x969071000006104 Misuse of Dipianone - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969171000006119 x969171000006103 Misuse of Levorphanol - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969221000006113 x969221000006109 Misuse of Piritramide - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969311000006114 x969311000006105 Misuse of Codeine unspecified - Probable
AURUM Medcode x969361000006112 x969361000006108 Misuse of Alphaprodine - Definite
AURUM Medcode x295229011 x191865004 Combined opioid with other drug dependence, unspecified - Definite
AURUM Medcode x295293019 x191909007 Nondependent opioid abuse, unspecified - Definite
AURUM Medcode x295157010 x75544000 Opioid drug dependence NOS - Definite
AURUM Medcode x295803018 x14784000 [X]Mental and behavioural disorders due to use of opioids - Definite
AURUM Medcode x295153014 x75544000 Unspecified opioid dependence - Definite
AURUM Medcode x295233016 x191865004 Combined opioid with other drug dependence NOS - Definite
AURUM Medcode x44291000006113 x75544000 Opioid type drug dependence - Definite
AURUM Medcode x371181000006118 x87132004 [X]Cold turkey, opiate withdrawal - Definite
AURUM Medcode x397661000006117 x943071000000104 [X]Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: psychotic disorder - Definite
AURUM Medcode x397901000006111 x5602001 [X]Mental and behav dis due to use of opioids: harmful use - Definite
AURUM Medcode x397941000006113 x87132004 [X]Mental and behav dis due to use opioids: withdrawal state - Definite
AURUM Medcode x397231000006112 x91388009 [X]Men & behav dis due opioid: withdrawl state with delirium - Definite
AURUM Medcode x397931000006115 x75544000 [X]Mental and behav dis due to use opioids: dependence syndr - Definite
AURUM Medcode x379281000006110 x75544000 [X]Drug addiction - opioids - Definite
AURUM Medcode x397451000006116 x91388009 [X]Ment & behav dis due use opioids: unsp ment & behav dis - Definite
AURUM Medcode x630131000006118 x310653000 Drug addictn therap-methadone - Definite
AURUM Medcode x388831000006113 x75544000 [X]Heroin addiction - Definite
AURUM Medcode x397261000006115 x14784000 [X]Men & behav dis due to use opioids: oth men & behav dis - Definite
AURUM Medcode x397651000006119 x77721001 [X]Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: acute intoxication - Definite
AURUM Medcode x397921000006118 x91388009 [X]Mental and behav dis due to use opioids: amnesic syndrome - Definite
AURUM Medcode x298101000000113 x198021000000102 Buprenorphine maintenance therapy - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1715521000000114 x768711000000101 Drug addiction maintenance therapy - lofexidine - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1880021000006116 x1880021000006100 Opioid substitution therapy monitoring - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1880021000006116 x1880021000006100 Opioid substitution therapy monitoring - Definite
AURUM Medcode x2296901000000113 x891951000000109 Opioid substitution therapy monitoring - Definite
AURUM Medcode x2296901000000113 x891951000000109 Opioid substitution therapy monitoring - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1971461000006112 x1971461000006108 Men & behav dis due opioid: withdrawl state with delirium, with convulsions - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1971521000006119 x1971521000006103 Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: psychotic disorder, predominantly hallucinatory - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1971601000006113 x1971601000006109 Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: psychotic disorder, predominantly manic symptoms - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1971711000006115 x1971711000006104 Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: resid & late-onset psychot dis, other persisting cognitive impairment - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1971421000006118 x1971421000006102 Mental and behav dis due to use opioids: withdrawal state, uncomplicated - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1971451000006110 x1971451000006106 Men & behav dis due opioid: withdrawl state with delirium, without convulsions - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1971471000006117 x1971471000006101 Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: psychotic disorder, schizophrenia-like - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1971571000006118 x1971571000006102 Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: psychotic disorder, predominantly depressive symptoms - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1971671000006119 x1971671000006103 Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: resid & late-onset psychot dis, personality or behaviour disorder - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1971441000006113 x1971441000006109 Mental and behav dis due to use opioids: withdrawal state, with convulsions - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1971741000006116 x1971741000006100 Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: resid & late-onset psychot dis, late-onset psychotic disorder - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1976471000006112 x1976471000006108 Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: acute intoxication, with convulsions - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1976551000006118 x1976551000006102 Mental and behav dis due to use opioids: dependence syndr, currently on a clinically supervised maintenance or replacement regime [controlled dependence] - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1971501000006112 x1971501000006108 Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: psychotic disorder, predominantly delusional - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1971631000006117 x1971631000006101 Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: psychotic disorder, mixed - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1971651000006112 x1971651000006108 Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: resid & late-onset psychot dis, flashbacks - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1971681000006116 x1971681000006100 Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: resid & late-onset psychot dis, residual affective disorder - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1976301000006110 x1976301000006106 Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: acute intoxication, with trauma or other bodily injury - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1976591000006112 x1976591000006108 Mental and behav dis due to use opioids: dependence syndr, currently using the substance [active dependence] - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1976501000006117 x1976501000006101 Mental and behav dis due to use opioids: dependence syndr, currently abstinent - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1976351000006114 x1976351000006105 Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: acute intoxication, with delirium - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1976621000006114 x1976621000006105 Mental and behav dis due to use opioids: dependence syndr, episodic use [dipsomania] - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1976281000006111 x1976281000006107 Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: acute intoxication, uncomplicated - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1976331000006119 x1976331000006103 Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: acute intoxication, with other medical complications - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1976421000006111 x1976421000006107 Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: acute intoxication, with perceptual distortions - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1976581000006114 x1976581000006105 Mental and behav dis due to use opioids: dependence syndr, currently abstinent, but receiving treatment with aversive or blocking drugs - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1880021000006116 x1880021000006100 Opioid substitution therapy monitoring - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1880021000006116 x1880021000006100 Opioid substitution therapy monitoring - Definite
AURUM Medcode x2296901000000113 x891951000000109 Opioid substitution therapy monitoring - Definite
AURUM Medcode x2296901000000113 x891951000000109 Opioid substitution therapy monitoring - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1971701000006118 x1971701000006102 Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: resid & late-onset psychot dis, dementia - Definite
AURUM Medcode x2000501000006119 x2000501000006103 Uses other opioids on top of substitution therapy - Definite
AURUM Medcode x2000491000006110 x2000491000006106 Does not use opioids on top of substitution therapy - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1715481000000114 x768691000000103 Drug addiction maintenance therapy - naltrexone - Definite
AURUM Medcode x397161000006110 x943071000000104 [X]Men & beh dis due opioids: resid & late-onset psychot dis - Definite
AURUM Medcode x968931000006110 x968931000006106 Misuse of Methadone linctus - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969201000006115 x969201000006104 Misuse of Papaveretum - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1976611000006118 x1976611000006102 Mental and behav dis due to use opioids: dependence syndr, continuous use - Definite
AURUM Medcode x969341000006113 x969341000006109 Misuse of Nalbuphine - Definite
AURUM Medcode x1976441000006116 x1976441000006100 Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: acute intoxication, with coma - Definite
GOLD Prodcode x6547 - Buprenorphine 2mg sublingual tablets sugar free B Definite
GOLD Prodcode x6056 - Buprenorphine 8mg sublingual tablets sugar free B Definite
GOLD Prodcode x33832 - Methadone 1mg/ml oral solution (Martindale Pharmaceuticals Ltd) M Definite
GOLD Prodcode x13031 - Subutex 0.4mg sublingual tablets (Indivior UK Ltd) B Definite
GOLD Prodcode x35170 - Suboxone 2mg/500microgram sublingual tablets (Indivior UK Ltd) B Definite
GOLD Prodcode x26277 - Physeptone 1mg/ml mixture (Martindale Pharmaceuticals Ltd) M Definite
GOLD Prodcode x35169 - Suboxone 8mg/2mg sublingual tablets (Indivior UK Ltd) B Definite
GOLD Prodcode x35681 - Buprenorphine 2mg / Naloxone 500microgram sublingual tablets sugar free B Definite
GOLD Prodcode x35682 - Buprenorphine 8mg / Naloxone 2mg sublingual tablets sugar free B Definite
GOLD Prodcode x6210 - Subutex 8mg sublingual tablets (Indivior UK Ltd) B Definite
GOLD Prodcode x55825 - Methadone 1mg/ml oral solution sugar free (Thornton & Ross Ltd) M Definite
GOLD Prodcode x33068 - Methadone 10mg/1ml solution for injection ampoules M Definite
GOLD Prodcode x2952 - Methadone 1mg/ml oral solution M Definite
GOLD Prodcode x3064 - Buprenorphine 400microgram sublingual tablets sugar free B Definite
GOLD Prodcode x47706 - Methadone 1mg/ml oral solution sugar free (Martindale Pharmaceuticals Ltd) M Definite
GOLD Prodcode x9728 - Methadone 1mg/ml oral solution sugar free M Definite
GOLD Prodcode x21562 - Physeptone 1mg/ml oral solution sugar free (Martindale Pharmaceuticals Ltd) M Definite
GOLD Prodcode x10077 - Subutex 2mg sublingual tablets (Indivior UK Ltd) B Definite
GOLD Prodcode x11722 - Methadone 10mg/ml oral solution sugar free M Definite
GOLD Medcode x111551 x1V33.00 Groin injector - Probable
GOLD Medcode x106705 x1V3A.00 Does not share drug injection equipment - Probable
GOLD Medcode x107780 x1V32.00 Neck injector - Probable
GOLD Medcode x95957 x13cN.00 Has never shared drug injection equipment - Probable
GOLD Medcode x97000 x1V3..00 Drug injection behaviour - Probable
GOLD Medcode x27960 xE240300 Opioid dependence in remission - Definite
GOLD Medcode x52451 xE248300 Combined opioid with other drug dependence in remission - Definite
GOLD Medcode x86771 x1T13.00 Previous history of methadone misuse - Definite
GOLD Medcode x88372 x1T02.00 Previous history of heroin misuse - Definite
GOLD Medcode x95953 xE255300 Nondependent opioid abuse in remission - Definite
GOLD Medcode x689 xE240.11 Heroin dependence - Definite
GOLD Medcode x4564 xEu11212 [X]Heroin addiction - Definite
GOLD Medcode x6111 x8B23.11 Drug addictn therap-methadone - Definite
GOLD Medcode x10538 xEu11211 [X]Drug addiction - opioids - Definite
GOLD Medcode x16243 xE240.00 Opioid type drug dependence - Definite
GOLD Medcode x16374 xE240.12 Methadone dependence - Definite
GOLD Medcode x20962 xE240200 Episodic opioid dependence - Definite
GOLD Medcode x30711 xZV11500 [V]Personal history of drug abuse by injection - Probable
GOLD Medcode x24441 xE240z00 Opioid drug dependence NOS - Definite
GOLD Medcode x25527 xEu11311 [X]Cold turkey, opiate withdrawal - Definite
GOLD Medcode x26061 xE248.00 Combined opioid with other drug dependence - Definite
GOLD Medcode x26831 xE255.00 Nondependent opioid abuse - Definite
GOLD Medcode x27652 xEu11700 [X]Men & beh dis due opioids: resid & late-onset psychot dis - Definite
GOLD Medcode x28976 x8B2N.00 Drug addiction detoxification therapy - methadone - Definite
GOLD Medcode x30565 x146C.00 Failed heroin detoxification - Definite
GOLD Medcode x30694 x8B2P.00 Drug addiction maintenance therapy - methadone - Definite
GOLD Medcode x32804 xE240.14 Opium dependence - Definite
GOLD Medcode x34249 xEu11200 [X]Mental and behav dis due to use opioids: dependence syndr - Definite
GOLD Medcode x36241 xEu11300 [X]Mental and behav dis due to use opioids: withdrawal state - Definite
GOLD Medcode x37568 xEu11100 [X]Mental and behav dis due to use of opioids: harmful use - Definite
GOLD Medcode x38034 xE240000 Unspecified opioid dependence - Definite
GOLD Medcode x43075 xE240100 Continuous opioid dependence - Definite
GOLD Medcode x47083 x8B2M.00 Buprenorphine maintenance therapy - Definite
GOLD Medcode x47335 xEu11.00 [X]Mental and behavioural disorders due to use of opioids - Definite
GOLD Medcode x50964 xEu11500 [X]Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: psychotic disorder - Definite
GOLD Medcode x51052 x8B2R.00 Drug addiction detoxification therapy - buprenorphine - Definite
GOLD Medcode x52739 xEu11y00 [X]Men & behav dis due to use opioids: oth men & behav dis - Definite
GOLD Medcode x56194 xE248000 Combined opioid with other drug dependence, unspecified - Definite
GOLD Medcode x58731 xE255100 Nondependent opioid abuse, continuous - Definite
GOLD Medcode x60355 xZ1Q6200 Methadone maintenance - Definite
GOLD Medcode x64265 xE248100 Combined opioid with other drug dependence, continuous - Definite
GOLD Medcode x64277 xE248200 Combined opioid with other drug dependence, episodic - Definite
GOLD Medcode x64382 xE255200 Nondependent opioid abuse, episodic - Definite
GOLD Medcode x69508 xE255z00 Nondependent opioid abuse NOS - Definite
GOLD Medcode x73737 xE248z00 Combined opioid with other drug dependence NOS - Definite
GOLD Medcode x82479 x1T0..00 H/O heroin misuse - Definite
GOLD Medcode x85097 x1T1..00 H/O methadone misuse - Definite
GOLD Medcode x85953 x1TF..00 Does not use heroin on top of substitution therapy - Definite
GOLD Medcode x86002 x1T00.00 H/O daily heroin misuse - Definite
GOLD Medcode x86036 x1TD..00 H/O opiate misuse - Definite
GOLD Medcode x86041 x1TE..00 Uses heroin on top of substitution therapy - Definite
GOLD Medcode x88760 x1TD0.00 H/O daily opiate misuse - Definite
GOLD Medcode x89145 x1T03.00 H/O infrequent heroin misuse - Definite
GOLD Medcode x90198 x8BE0.00 Reinduction to methadone maintenance therapy - Definite
GOLD Medcode x91029 x1TD2.00 H/O infrequent opiate misuse - Definite
GOLD Medcode x91256 x1TD3.00 Previous history of opiate misuse - Definite
GOLD Medcode x91801 xEu11z00 [X]Ment & behav dis due use opioids: unsp ment & behav dis - Definite
GOLD Medcode x92404 x1T10.00 H/O daily methadone misuse - Definite
GOLD Medcode x93109 x1T11.00 H/O weekly methadone misuse - Definite
GOLD Medcode x93554 x1T01.00 H/O weekly heroin misuse - Definite
GOLD Medcode x93980 x8B2S.00 Opioid agonist substitution therapy - Definite
GOLD Medcode x95460 xZ1Q6214 Heroin maintenance - Definite
GOLD Medcode x96081 x8BE1.00 Reinduction to buprenorphine maintenance therapy - Definite
GOLD Medcode x96925 x1V65.00 Heroin misuse - Definite
GOLD Medcode x100632 xZ1Q6212 Methadone therapy - Definite
GOLD Medcode x101377 x1TD1.00 H/O weekly opiate misuse - Definite
GOLD Medcode x103991 xEu11600 [X]Mental and behav dis due to use opioids: amnesic syndrome - Definite
GOLD Medcode x106342 x1T12.00 H/O infrequent methadone misuse - Definite
GOLD Medcode x108251 x66c4.00 Opioid substitution therapy monitoring - Definite
GOLD Medcode x43487 x8B2Q.00 Drug addiction maintenance therapy - buprenorphine - Definite
GOLD Medcode x97488 xEu11400 [X]Men & behav dis due opioid: withdrawl state with delirium - Definite
GOLD Medcode x42456 xEu11000 [X]Mental & behav dis due to use opioids: acute intoxication - Definite
GOLD Medcode x28710 xU205.11 [X]Overdose - heroin - Probable
GOLD Medcode x68327 x13r3.00 Abstinent from drug misuse on maintenance replacement - Probable
GOLD Medcode x37527 xTJ50.00 Adverse reaction to heroin, diamorphine - Probable
GOLD Medcode x109966 x8B23100 Drug addiction maintenance therapy - lofexidine - Definite
GOLD Medcode x109730 x8B23000 Drug addiction maintenance therapy - naltrexone - Definite
GOLD Medcode x20458 xSL50100 Heroin poisoning - Probable
GOLD Medcode x22079 x13c0.00 Injecting drug user - Probable
GOLD Medcode x51334 xU1A5.11 [X]Accidental poisoning with heroin - Probable
GOLD Medcode x54560 xT800.00 Accidental poisoning by heroin - Probable
GOLD Medcode x103842 x38G1.00 Clinical opiate withdrawal scale - Probable
GOLD Medcode x30251 x13c1.00 Intravenous drug user - Probable
GOLD Medcode x22059 xE240.13 Morphine dependence - Definite
GOLD Medcode x40536 xE255000 Nondependent opioid abuse, unspecified - Definite
GOLD Medcode x30598 x8BAd.00 Opiate dependence detoxification - Definite
GOLD Medcode x32709 x13cJ.00 Previously injecting drug user - Probable
GOLD Medcode x58560 xZRk7.00 Severity of opiate dependence questionnaire - Probable
GOLD Medcode x97811 x1V38.00 Sharing of drug injecting equipment - Probable
GOLD Medcode x60243 xZRk7.11 SODQ - Severity of opiate dependence questionnaire - Probable

Implementation

We selected patients by identifying product codes indicating a prescription of OAT and clinical codes indicating a history of illicit opioid use, such as ‘heroin dependence’ (see extended data for a full code list23). We prioritised specificity over sensitivity, aiming to use codes that are only applied to the target population.

We used keywords to search CPRD dictionaries to find Read and SNOMED clinical codes that may illicit opioid use (methadone; buprenorphine; abus; addict; ependen; drug user; heroin; inject; misus*; opiate; opioid; overdose). Our search identified 1,098 Read codes and 1,800 SNOMED codes. Two authors (DL and PP) screened the codes for relevance, with conflicts resolved through discussion.

Where codes were likely to indicate illicit opioid use, but did not specifically mention opioids, we classified them as ‘probable’. Some clinical codes described prescriptions, tests or adverse reactions relating to methadone and buprenorphine.

Publications

Lewer D, Padmanathan P, Qummer ul Arfeen M et al. Healthcare use by people who use illicit opioids (HUPIO): development of a cohort based on electronic primary care records in England [version 1; peer review: awaiting peer review]. Wellcome Open Res 2020, 5:282. 10.12688/wellcomeopenres.16431.1